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Heat Stress in Calves

Heat stress this season

Temperature and humidity both play a role in thermal stress. Using the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) enables you to determine the level of summer stress. The Thermo Neutral Zone for dairy cows is 5-20°C, stress symptoms begin at a THI of 68; temperature of 24° and a relative humidity of 20%.

With the UK average humidity over 70%, the heat stress threshold is reached at temperatures as low as 22°C.

Impact on yield

Daily exposure to a THI of 68-71 could result in 1.1kg/cow/day less milk and at THI 72-79 you can expect 2.7kg cow/day less milk (Dussert and Piron, 2012). This is a result of the impaired rumen balance, the fall in rumen pH and the increased risk of acidosis. The table below highlights the impact heat stress can have on milk alone, based on a milk price of 28ppl:


Impact on metabolic requirement

Heat stress causes the animal to increase heat dispersion by increasing subcutaneous blood flow, panting and drooling. This increases maintenance energy needs by an estimated 20%, meaning that part of the cow’s production energy will be diverted to thermal regulation. Most of the heat production in dairy cows is due to rumen fermentation. The cow will reduce her DMI by 10-30% and be selective to what she eats; less forage, as roughages increase rumen activity and therefore heat.

Impact on fertility

Heat stress can decrease reproduction performance in three ways:

1. Oestrus intensity reduces, heat detection becomes more difficult (Gwazdauskas et al., 1981; Wolfenson et al., 1988).

2. Fertility is reduced:

• A 10-20% drop-in conception rates.
• Pregnancy loss at maximum THI over 69 (Garcia-Ispoerto et al., 2006).

3. Early embryo survival is compromised:

• Embryos are more likely to develop slowly and abnormally (Putney et al., 1989).
• Increased oocyte cell death further reducing opportunities for pregnancy success (Zeron et al., 2001; Al-Katanani et al., 2002)
• Heat stress is detrimental to the follicle that encloses the oocyte cell and can lead to more small and medium sized follicles and reduced dominance (Hansen, 2013).

5 Top Tips to Counteract Heat Stress

  1. Ensure clean, fresh water with good access, adequate trough space and ensure flow rates can keep up with demand.
  2. Installing sprinklers can be effective if housing is suitable. Remember stocking rates and ventilation- make tweaks to improve air flow for example installation of fans.
  3. Consider feeding larger quantities of feed early morning and late afternoon, when temperatures are cooler.
  4. Make available shaded areas.
  5. Adjust and supplement the diet through buffer, bypass feeds, supplements and farm paks

For more advice and information on Heat Stress in Youngstock, get in touch with the NWF Youngstock Team.

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